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It is unusually boring to learn about the different features of a volcano through a book. How about building one at home? From the outside, the whole process of building a volcano might seem to be quite intricate. However, in reality the process is not only easy, but also very interesting. Here is a step by step procedure to build a volcano.

Materials needed for building a volcano are flour, salt, cooking oil, baking soda, vinegar, dishwasher detergent, red color and water. A baking dish and 2L plastic bottle are also required.  Start with the mountain first. For this, 8 cups of flour, 3 cups of salt, 5 tablespoons of cooking oil and 3 cups of water would be needed. Mix all the ingredients, and continue to stir the mixture until smooth, but firm dough is formed. If the dough appears to be thin in consistency, then add some flour. Set aside the mixture for a few minutes to allow it to harden.

Volcano How to Build a Volcano

Take the baking dish and keep the bottle in the upright position in the center of the dish. Start sculpting the mountain around the bottle. Take care not to close the top of the bottle. Also the dough shouldn’t get inside the bottle. Try to make the mountain as real as possible. The cracks, crevices, fissures, slopes and gaps should all be there.

In the next step, heat the water to fill about three quarters of the bottle. Don’t boil the water, just heat it. Pour the warm water into the bottle, and thereafter add the red color. This should be done quickly because the volcano explodes better when the water is still warm.

While the water is still warm, add 6 to 7 drops of dishwasher detergent. This will serve to produce foam that bears resemblance to the steam and gases of real volcano. Next add 3 tablespoons of baking soda. Lastly, add vinegar into the bottle. The reaction between baking soda and vinegar will cause an explosion to occur. The volcano will erupt and lava will start oozing out of its mouth. Due to the reaction, carbon dioxide will also be emitted. No other harmful gases will be produced.

Build a Volcano How to Build a Volcano

As a mark of precaution, all the ingredients should be added as quickly as possible and the entire process should be performed only under adult supervision. Even a small bit of carelessness can produce deleterious effects.

The waterfall not only stimulates, rejuvenates and enlivens the milieu, but also generates a relaxing effect that annihilates all kinds of stress, tension, anxiety and angst. It can be easily and inexpensively built in any region of the house like garden, patio, terrace and the like. Here is a stepwise procedure to build a waterfall in the garden.

  • Normally, rocks and concrete are used for building a waterfall. Re-constituted rocks and preformed units made of cement, plastic or fiberglass can also be used. The preformed units are light-weight and easy on the pocket. Moreover, they are available in a wide variety of shapes and sizes.

Waterfall1 How to Build a Waterfall

  • An appropriate location has to be selected for the pond and waterfall in the garden. If the pond is already there, then all that is left to be done is to build a waterfall. Assuming that the pond exists, start building a mound of soil for the waterfall. Ensure that the mound gradually slopes down towards the frame of the pond.
  • In the mound the pre-formed units have to be fixed and for them level-pockets have to be created. Make sure that the units are properly aligned and their lips overlap with one another. To test whether the units are correctly placed or not, release water from the hose. The water should flow centrally and there should be no seepage in the region where the lips of the units overlap. If there is any irregularity, re-adjust the tilt and evenness of the mound. Build temporary stakes on the outer edges of the units to maintain their alignment.
  • Once the units have been properly installed in the mound, number them and thereafter remove them. Place the water hose over the mound and attach it to the submersible pump that is present in the pond.
  • With the passage of time, the soil will settle down. For this reason, it is essential to keep the preformed units approximately 1-inch higher than one another. Sand can be used to provide additional cushioning. If the number of units is more than 3, then plastic liner should be used. The liner should be laid in such a manner that there is at least 2-3 feet overlap. At this point of time, the water hose should be placed along the sides of the pockets of the preformed units.

Waterfall How to Build a Waterfall

  • Place small amount of cement mixture in each pocket and replace the units. Recheck the tilt and levelness of the units with the pump and water hose. Allow the cement to dry.
  • Lastly, remove all the temporary stakes and soil packs, cut the excess plastic liner, and cover up the barren edges with gravel, boulders, rocks and plants. The waterfall is ready to perk up the beauty of the garden.

Worm farming is a good way to convert household biodegradable waste into compost, which can be used to improve the structure, composition and productivity of the soil. It is something that can easily be done, all the year round, in the backyard, apartment or office. Here is a step-by-step procedure to build a worm farm.

The most important thing that is needed for the worm farm is a compost bin, which should be approximately 60-cm high, 80-cm long and 30-cm wide. The size of the bin can vary depending upon the amount of space available. Either wooden or plastic container can be used of worm farming. While the former is a better absorbent and insulator, the latter maintains constant moisture level.

Worm Farm How to Build a Worm Farm

The next step is to prepare the bedding. Shredded newspaper, cardboard, peat moss and straw are ideal bedding materials. It is advisable to use more than one bedding item so as to create a suitable environment for the worm to thrive, survive and multiply.

Moisten the bedding before placing it into the compost bin. It should be as wet as a sponge from which the water has been squeezed out. A handful of garden soil should also be added to the bedding. Fill about three-quarters of the container with the bedding and to it add 1kg of worms.

For proper drainage and aeration, drill small holes on the sides and bottom of the compost bin. Also turn the bedding periodically with the help of the trowel. The worms function well at room temperature. Hence, don’t keep the bin directly under the sun. Instead keep it in a dark, cool place, and cover it with an old newspaper to conserve moisture.

From time to time, kitchen wastes like food scraps, chopped vegetables and fruits, crushed egg shells, tea bags, filters, coffee grounds, and the like can be added to the worm farm. Shredded cardboard and newspaper can also be added. Dairy products, poultry, meat, citrus fruits, oily food items and members of onion family like garlic, leek, etc. should not be added. Due to these items, an unpleasant odor starts coming out of the farm.

The worms generally reproduce every 60 days. However, their population depends upon the size of the environment and the amount of food available. Under proper conditions, the worm decompose the bedding completely and form rich, dark brown compost, which can be used in the garden as such.

Trellises are widely used in the agriculture sector to support grape vines. It is made by interwoven wooden pieces in order to support the vines that are too fragile to support themselves and the harvests. The garden supply stores do supply a variety of premade decorative trellis, but you will need at least an 8 square feet space for the vines to expand and handmade ones are usually more functional. Therefore, it would be easier and cost saving for us to build our own grape trellis.

How to build a grape trellis?

Firstly, determine on the number of grape vines you would like to plant, and calculate the amount of materials need. You will need materials like timber or pine wood for the posts, galvanized wires, cement, and post hole diggers. Go for wires that are sturdy and weatherproof to withhold the weight of the crops. Decorative metal trellises are definitely not a good choice for grape planting as they are good heat conductors. When the sun is very hot, the metal trellises will absorb the heat and it might stunt the growth of grape vines.

Build a Grape Trellis How to Build a Grape Trellis

Dig postholes that are at least 8 feet apart from each other. The length of the post, ranging from 3 feet to 8 feet tall, depends on different types of grape vines. Two feet of the post should be buried in the ground and then secured with cement. Posts in swales can be pulled out by the tension of the wires, so they will have to be secured deeper into the ground. Tension indicator springs should be added to these posts to absorb the excessive tension created by the wires.

Run the first tier of the galvanized wires on top of the post from one to another horizontally. The second tier should be stapled 3 feet away from the first tier. Staple the wires to the side of the post twice to ensure the wires are attached firmly. Make sure that the wires are level and stapled tightly to the posts, as well as sturdy enough to withstand the weight of the vines and fruits.

It would be better for us to know how to build grape trellis ourselves as it helps reduce the cost of planting grapes. Handmade trellises are usually more practical and long lasting compared to the ones that are sold for decorative purposes. And by building our own trellis, we get to choose suitable materials so that the trellises can last up to 20 years.

Model sailboats ignite a certain memory or forgotten passion for many. Whether you long to be the captain of a ship or enjoy travelling in a boat, having a beautiful replica to look at is pleasing to the eye. These days, there are many miniature replicas of the real-size items. They include trains, cars, boats, and airplanes. Though they are kits available conveniently in many stores, there is no greater satisfaction than to be able to build a boat from scratch. Even models differ by designs and complexity. If you cannot find one that meets your preference, why not draw up a plan, purchase the materials and build one yourself today? Here are some ways on how to build a model sailboat.

Depending on what you want, there are a few types of boats. Some are simple enough for beginners to tackle; some can go on water while others are for experienced or professional builders. The simpler ones are more suitable for kids or first-time builders, while if you opt to build one that can withstand water; you will need a remote control installed with it. For advanced builders, their passion requires many hours of confinement and dedication to perfect that boat. Some of the materials needed include plywood, epoxy, fiberglass cloth, filler and paint.

Model Sailboat How to Build a Model Sailboat

Firstly, you need to mark the plywood with areas to be cut. Measure accurately because the parts have to fit in perfectly later on. To give it a good cut, use a circular saw. That way, you don’t have to bend the wood to cut it. After you have all the parts, you can start assembling. The rule of thumb is to assemble the front, rear and sides of the bottom. The sequence of assembly for the other parts depends on your layout design. To seal joints, apply epoxy on fiberglass tape and wrap it around the respective joints. Let dry before proceeding. You can also cover the seams using the same method.

After sealing, you can now add seats, storage and deck. The other parts to include in this process are rudder, mast, and boom. After these steps are completed, give it a fresh coat of paint. Opt for a high quality paint to give it an excellent finish. Remember to apply sealer as well. You can now attach the sail to the mast. To fasten the sail, you may need a more detailed plan.

These are the basic steps on how to build a model sailboat. You will surely be delighted at the completed work and marvel at the beauty of the boat.

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